Avoiding the Glass Cliff

Law faculties are undergoing financial and status constraints that increase the risk of women academics being subjected to glass cliff appointments. Glass cliff appointments are the placement of women in academic management positions in times of reduction of budget or status, or other situation of crisis. Women are appointed in part because of stereotypical conceptions about their supposed conciliatory style of management. Academic management positions suffer a corresponding decline in status, merit and prestige, as they have become more time-consuming due to an significant increase in meetings and other administrative tasks, thereby reducing the ability of women academics to complete high level research. Helen Peterson conducted a study of Swedish women in academic management and found that: “The problem with glass cliff appointments is that they come with an increased risk of failure and the leader being held accountable and blamed for negative events. Glass cliff appointments also tend to involve less authority, to be less likely to lead on to more senior appointments, offer less material rewards and be less valued in the organization. Another problem is that glass cliff appointments are particularly stressful for women and involve more interpersonal conflict.”

Her article is available here: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741143214563897

On Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the World at 75 years by Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (in Spanish)

Hiroshima y Nagasaki

Y el mundo a 75 años

El avión sobrevoló la ciudad de Hiroshima, los pilotos a cumplir su rutina  de  guerra, arrojar las bombas sobre territorio enemigo y regresar a la base. Ese día las instrucciones de sus jefes fue que llevaban un arma especial,   arrojar la bomba en el objetivo asignado y alejarse lo más rápido posible del blanco. El día 6 de agosto el cielo  estaba sin nubosidad y el comandante feliz  porque habían puesto el nombre de su madre Enola Gay al avión.

 Cuando arrojaron la bomba atómica sobre la ciudad de Hiroshima algo se quebró en su interior y el piloto gritó -¡Dios mío,… Dios mío… que hemos hecho!…..en ese minuto el mundo cambió. El presidente Truman de los EEUU dio la orden de arrojar la bomba sobre Hiroshima, una ciudad civil sin bases militares,  la bomba atómica  desato  el horror, la destrucción y muerte se sobre  la  humanidad.

Los pilotos regresaron con la muerte en el alma, ya nada sería igual. El gobierno de Truman buscó todo tipo de justificación para justificar lo injustificable,  Japón ya estaba vencido antes de las bombas. La crueldad humana no tiene límites, como no la tuvo el nazismo en los campos de concentración  contra los judíos.

El presidente Truman  impartió la orden de  arrojar la segunda bomba atómica el día 9 de agosto de 1945 sobre la ciudad de Nagasaki.  El “éxito de las masacres” fue total, necesitaba  mostrar el poderío de los EEUU al mundo y en especial a la Unión Soviética, su aliado circunstancial en la guerra.

Una madre víctima de la bomba en Nagasaki deja una carta a su hija de dos años que sobrevive, es de una ternura infinita  donde le dice como cambió la vida, que su amor permanece más allá de la muerte y  que la recuerde.

En mis viajes a Japón en varias oportunidades estuve en  Hiroshima, me reuní con  mujeres – Ibakushas,-  sobrevivientes de la bomba;  son  testigos del horror y nos  acompañaron  recorriendo los túmulos y lugares dónde estallo la bomba y donde se encuentran  las víctimas; decían que  tienen la responsabilidad de trasmitir la memoria  de lo vivido cuando eran niñas a tres kilómetros de la ciudad en la escuela y ese día perdieron su familia, después de los bombardeos hasta el presente sufren las radiaciones, el cáncer y la contaminación que mató a miles de japoneses/as  no combatientes.

La humanidad frente al dolor y tragedia  de dos guerras en el siglo XX  buscó encontrar caminos de entendimiento y respeto entre los pueblos y dio nacimiento a  las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, un paso fundamental en para lograr superar el horror  y sanar las heridas y tratar de encontrar nuevos horizontes de vida  para que nunca más vuelva a desatarse  la tragedia de todas las guerras. Si bien los organismos internacionales cumplen una función necesaria  en el mundo, la carrera armamentista, las guerras, los conflictos bélicos, de alta y baja intensidad, y la explotación de los bienes y recursos de la Madre Tierra  no terminaron. Continúa la ambición del poder dominación acumulando arsenales nucleares entre las grandes potencias y generando más pobreza, marginalidad y hambre en el mundo

 Hoy nuestra Casa Común sufre la Pandemia del Coronavirus,  tragedia que  afecta a toda la humanidad con miles de muertos y millones de infestados y sin encontrar hasta el momento vacunas o antídotos para superar la tragedia global.

El Covid 19 es consecuencia del maltrato del ser humano contra la Madre Tierra, la destrucción de la floresta, los agro-tóxicos, las quemas intencionales que provocan la perdida de la biodiversidad,  la muerte de los animales y la violencia contra las comunidades indígenas;  devastación y crueldad que ha roto el equilibrio entre el ser humano y la Madre Tierra, es urgente llamar a la conciencia de los gobiernos que privilegian el capital financiero sobre la vida de los pueblos.

Llamar a la conciencia de  empresas que en su afán de lucro no respetan los derechos de la Naturaleza, es urgente convocar a un “Nuevo contrato Social”  para encontrar nuevos caminos de convivencia, caso contrario las pandemias se agudizarán cobrando más vidas y la destrucción de  bienes y recursos naturales.

Los centros de investigación científica están cerca de alcanzar una vacuna para el Covid 19, es necesario que la misma sea gratuita para toda la humanidad, sin exclusiones de los países más pobres.

Es necesario hacer memoria, no para quedarse en el pasado, la memoria nos ilumina el presente y nos llama a reflexionar, a 75 años de Hiroshima tenemos que ver el caminar de la humanidad,  sus avances y retrocesos, no se trata de recordar únicamente la tragedia y a las víctimas, debemos honrar la memoria de las víctimas de las guerras y mirar el camino a recorrer de la humanidad.

No olvidar  el momento que el mundo cambia cuando el avión por orden del presidente de los EEUU Truman lanza su carga mortífera sobre poblaciones civiles.

El pueblo japonés sobreponiéndose al dolor y destrucción ha logrado grandes avances en la reconstrucción de ciudades devastadas como Hiroshima y Nagasaki, pero preserva la memoria de los días  6 y 9 de agosto de 1945 en que el mundo cambio.

 La humanidad necesita desarmar la “razón armada”, hacer  realidad lo que en el Foro Social Mundial – FSM- proclamamos que “Otro mundo es posible”, transformar las armas en arados  como  dice el profeta Isaias,  a fin de alcanzar la Paz y unidad en la diversidad entre las personas y los pueblos del mundo.

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

Buenos Aires, 1 de agosto del 2020

 

Time to break the Silence of Academia in the face of MicroAggression and Harassment

U.S. Representative Alexandra Ocasio-Cortez’s eloquent rebuke of the verbal abuse she was subjected to by fellow Representative Ted Yoho prompted reflection by all women on the institutionalized workplace harassment they face, including within academia. Women in academia have been and continue to be routinely subject to stereotyping, harassment, exclusion, subtle verbal and non-verbal insults, rumors, gossip, and pathologizing of their communication. They are also subject to inter-sectoral discrimination based on their ethnicity, race, religion, and nationality in addition to their gender. Common stereotypes include:

•Bossy •Crass •Emotional, Difficult, Problematic •Scary (50 plus) •Overly Sensitive, Insecure •Overreacts •Nice (under 50) •The Mother •The Workaholic •Divorced

In contrast, male academics are subject to positive stereotypes which lead to promotions, awards, and accolades:

•Direct Leadership style •Straight-forward, decisive •Enthusiastic, Driven •Assertive •Dedicated to research •Successful at managing various projects

A disturbing tendency within universities is a policy of silence when facing such practices. Cases are routinely shoved under the carpet, surprisingly often by men & women administrators, personnel managers, and Deans who seek to uphold the reputation of the university at the expense of the woman academic. The harassment may be labled as a minor, the women academic reminded “to move beyond the incident” thereby leaving the culture of abuse unchanged. It is time to break the culture of silence which fails to condemn language which diminishes the woman academic. Universities should have transparent mechanisms to correct discrimination and harassment of staff and students. While globalization has prompted universities to pursue diversity, such policies may fail if there is a lack of institutional committment to confronting discrimination in an open, effective manner.

As I have received requests for strategies to deal with microaggression, there are several resources which recommend lobbying for universities to adopt a microaggression framework or an Inclusiveness toolkit. It is important for women academics to meet across departments to validate and share their experiences as well as cooperate to design better polices.

Read On! Women and Law

The Washington Post reported today that for the first time the editors of the journals of the top 16 law schools in the United States are all women! https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/legal-issues/for-the-first-time-flagship-law-journals-at-top-us-law-schools-are-all-led-by-women/2020/02/07/b4d3bc64-4836-11ea-bc78-8a18f7afcee7_story.html

They joined together an published a special edition on Women and Law featuring a selection of accomplished women lawyers from diverse backgrounds addressing intersectoral concerns. We extend our heartfelt congratulations and encourage all to read and disseminate this edition!: https://law.duke.edu/sites/default/files/news/WomenandLaw.pdf

Family, Gender, and Leadership in the Legal Profession Kerry Abrams

Motherhood as Misogyny Jane H. Aiken

On Power & Indian Country Maggie Blackhawk

Reflections of a Lady Lawyer Lisa Blatt
The Nerve: Women of Color in the Legal Academy Khiara M. Bridges
Inching Toward Equal Dignity Denise Brogan-Kator

On Firsts, Feminism, and the Future of the Legal Profession Risa L. Goluboff

Carrying on Korematsu: Reflections on My Father’s Legacy Karen Korematsu

Reconstituting the Future: An Equality Amendment Catharine A. MacKinnon Kimberlé W. Crenshaw

Law School in a Different Voice Melissa Murray

Experience on the Bench Rebecca R. Pallmeyer
Kafka’s Court: Seeking Law and Justice at Guantanamo Bay Alka Pradhan

A Personal Essay Nitza I. Quiñones Alejandro

The Nineteenth Amendment: The Catalyst that Opened Courthouse Doors for Women on the Federal Bench Ann Claire Williams

Read On! Revista Temas de Derecho Constitucional: Asilo y Migracíon

I am pleased to announce the publication of the Constitutional Court of Colombia’s Revista Temas de Derecho Constitucional on Asylum and Migration. The edition includes articles in Spanish and English on collective expulsions, the Cartagena Declaration, Stateless children and birth registration, constitutional protection of asylym, socio-economic and cultural rights of migrants, provision of health care, etc. My article is titled “The Provision of Asylum as a Peace Mechanism and Recent Challenges Within Asylum Case Processing of Venezuelan Applicants in the US and Canada”. It discusses misapplication of the credibility standard, “credibility fatigue”, uneven evaluation of evidence, and failure to recognize a nexus to the protection category of political opinion. The conclusion confirms systemic dysfunction and the importance of appeals judges correcting arbitrary decisionmaking. Asylum as a peace mechanism is weakened. The Revista is available here:http://sidn.ramajudicial.gov.co/SIDN/DOCTRINA/TEXTOS_COMPLETOS/Revista%20Temas%20de%20Derecho%20Constitucional/HTML/146/index.html

Read On! Protection of Refugees and Migrants against Xenophobia

In response to the terrorist attack against Mexicans and Mexican Americans on August 3, 2019, the UN Secretary General stressed “the need for all to work together to counter violence rooted in hatred, racism, xenophobia and all forms of discrimination.”[3] The transnational evolution of xenophobia requires a committed response by the international community. My article in the latest edition of the Brazilian Yearbook of International Law discusess the rise of nativism, populism, and authoritarianism in the world and the situation of foreigners and persons perceived to foreigners, including refugees and IDPs. There are currently three scenarios faced by refugees and IDPs: protracted camps/warehousing, urbanization, and detention. This article outlines the range of human rights violations and accountability gaps in each of the three scenarios faced by refugees, arguing that these are examples of structural xenophobia. It discusses normative gaps within international law and analyzes the role of compliance mechanisms in the UN Human Rights Treaty Body Regime and regional human rights bodies. The article underscores the risk of inaction by the international community in the face of discrimination against refugees, using the case study of Norway.  The conclusion suggests a way forward by supporting the proposal for a new Protocol to the UN Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination addressing xenophobia.  The Yearbook is available here


[1] See UN General Assembly Resolution 73/262, A Global Call for Concrete Action for the Total Elimination of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, A/Res/73/262 (15 January 2019).

[2] https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/aug/04/mexico-legal-action-us-terrorism-amlo

[3] SG/SM/19689 5 August 2019

Go On! Rule of Law for Oceans, 4-5 November 2019

Conference in Oslo, Norway: Is law fit for purpose to protect the oceans against increasing pressures and demands? This two-day conference aims at analyzing new trends in the law of the sea, international environmental law, and related fields of law, and discussions related to the effectiveness of certain tools and mechanisms.

The Research Group on International Law and Governance (University of Oslo, Law Faculty) and the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) organize this conference to advance discussions on the gaps and challenges in law related to the protection of oceans, and to bring forward novel legal approaches and solutions.  

The oceans are under increasing pressure from climate change, (micro)plastic pollution, loss of biodiversity, habitat destruction, unsustainable use, to name but a few, which all adversely affect the resilience of our oceans.  UN Sustainable Development Goal 14 specifically requires us to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources. Key to sustainable ocean governance is the understanding of ecosystem functioning and the appreciation of interactions and interconnections among marine ecosystems, land and sea, oceans and climate, and interactions between marine and other types of ecosystems. Changes in the ecosystem functioning and resilience often have consequences far beyond in time and geographical scope and require robust but flexible and comprehensive regulatory solutions and approaches.

International law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides for a framework governing States’ rights and obligations with respect to the use of oceans and their resources, protection of the environment and biodiversity as well as responsibility for the damage caused to the oceans arising from unlawful activities of different actors. Regional agreements such as OSPAR and HELCOM have similar purposes for regional seas. National legal systems also play a crucial role in the implementation of international and regional obligations. The legal system is fragmented and comprehensive, but is the law ripe for protecting oceans in the face of increasing environmental challenges and human demands? Are legal frameworks effective, strong, and flexible enough to address new challenges and pressures in light of advanced scientific knowledge and understanding of oceans? This conference aims to discuss and reflect on how we could strengthen the rule of law for Oceans.

Where can existing laws evolve, adapt and improve? And where do we have to think afresh? Which innovative approaches and mechanisms are being adopted or under discussion and what could be their advantages?

Please send your abstract (max 300 words) and a short resume to Professor Alla Pozdnakova no later than 15th August 2019. You will be notified by 1st September 2019. Full link to conference call: here

Please mark your email with “Abstract for the Ocean Conference Oslo”. Abstracts submitted after the deadline will not be considered.

The organizing committee,

Alla Pozdnakova                                Froukje Maria Platjouw

Alla.pozdnakova@jus.uio.no               fmp@niva.no

Faculty of Law, University of Oslo       Faculty of Law, University of Oslo,  Norwegian Institute for Water Research            

Read On! Research Handbook on International Law and Peace

I am pleased to announce the publication of the Research Handbook on International Law and Peace. Peace is an elusive concept, especially within the field of international law, varying according to historical era and between contextual applications within different cultures, institutions, societies, and academic traditions. This Research Handbook responds to the gap created by the neglect of peace in international law scholarship.
Explaining the normative evolution of peace from the principles of peaceful co-existence to the UN declaration on the right to peace, this Research Handbook calls for the fortification of international institutions to facilitate the pursuit of sustainable peace as a public good.
It sets forth a new agenda for research that invites scholars from a broad array of disciplines and fields of law to analyse the contribution of international institutions to the construction and implementation of sustainable peace. With its critical examination of courts, transitional justice institutions, dispute resolution and fact-finding mechanisms, this Research Handbook goes beyond the traditional focus on post-conflict resolution, and includes areas not usually found in analyses of peace such as investment and trade law. Bringing together contributions from leading researchers in the field of international law and peace, this Research Handbook analyses peace in the context of law applicable to women, refugees, environmentalism, sustainable development, disarmament, and other key contemporary issues. This volume includes the voices of several women scholars from a variety of disciplines: Kjersti Skarstad, Maja Janmyr, Cecilie Hellesveit, Vibeke Blaker Strand, Jemima Garcia-Godos, Cornelia Weiss, Azin Tadjini, Gro Nystuen, and Christina Voigt. The book aims to assist policymakers, practitioners, and academics in the fields of international law, human rights, jus post bellum, and development. It is available here: https://www.elgaronline.com/view/edcoll/9781788117463/9781788117463.xml