CONSISTENCY: The Most Urgent Action Against Climate Change

During the first two weeks of December, world leaders will lay the foundation for a new global agreement on climate change at the 20th Conference of the Parties (COP20) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Lima, Peru. Its focus will be creating a draft agreement that, at next year’s COP in Paris, will replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This time, as stated by Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Peru’s Environment Minister and next President of the Conference, “the world will not accept another failure.”

Not without reason. Each year we are both witnesses to and victims of the worsening impacts of climate change. And our role in the problem is conspicuous: “Human influence on the climate system is clear, and recent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the highest in history,” the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded in their fifth report.

With COP20 nearing and recognition of the problem growing, world leaders are increasingly giving speeches, promising action and making hopeful commitments. One recent example is the unprecedented agreement between China and the United States, which established limits and objectives for the reduction of emissions. In Latin America we, too, have taken effective steps to confront the greatest threat to the human race.

Despite this progress, however, there remain in practice many policies that both created the problem and make it worse. In particular, the reliance of our economies on fossil fuels, which generate 57 percent of the global emissions of carbon dioxide. In the search for alternatives, we have boosted hydroelectric power from large dams. But dams are not clean energy. They generate significant amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, particularly in tropical regions. These and the other negative impacts of dams are often ignored, resulting in rudimentary solutions to climate change.

Consistency, then, becomes critical. What follows are examples of the lack of it in our own countries. Let’s take them into account as an effort to make adjustments, align objectives, and not erase with one hand what was written by the other:

  • Brazil is a key player in the region, and has demonstrated its will to achieve positive results on climate change. Proof of this is the historic decline of deforestation in the country, 79 percent in the last decade, as announced by Brazil’s President at the Climate Summit. However, Brazil continues to focus its development on fossil fuels, mining and large dams, particularly in the Amazon Basin. Under the influence of Brazil, 254 new dams are either under construction or in planning phases in the Amazon Basin, including the massive Belo Monte Dam on the Xingú River.

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Bolivia’s Maritime Claim before the ICJ

It is our pleasure to welcome back Elizabeth Santalla as today’s blogger.  Elizabeth reports the following regarding Bolivia’s maritime claim before the International Court of Justice:

On 24 April 2013, Bolivia instituted proceedings before the International Court of Justice requesting that the Court adjudge and declare, in general terms, the existence of an international obligation on the part of Chile to negotiate in good faith and effectively sovereign access to the sea for Bolivia. The issue has been a longstanding thorn in bilateral relations between the countries. The way Bolivia lost its access to the sea, as a result of a treaty signed to put an end to a the “War of the Pacific” and under the pressure of continuing Chilean  military occupation, has created feelings of unfairness embedded in Bolivian generations since then. Leaving to one side one unsuccessful attempt to bring the claim to an international judicial forum (in the context of the League of Nations) in 1920, Bolivia’s recent move is a departure from the traditional approach of fruitless diplomatic conversations and negotiations.

My blog post on the topic for the Peace Palace Library is available here.